This article was published in 3rd Stone magazine, 2003.
Download the article (pdf).
This article argues that, from the available evidence and analysis, it seems clear the primary orientation of Stonehenge is to the winter solstice setting sun. Prof. John North argues that this orientation was present at the earliest stages of the monument; certainly, the evidence that it was the orientation to which the monument was primarily dedicated and which received the most intense elaboration from its monumental stages seems incontrovertible.
This raises several questions. It clearly suggests, as Ruggles implies, that any orientation to the summer solstice rising sun is secondary to the main alignment to the winter solstice setting sun. It also indicates that the central orientations incorporated at Stonehenge from its earliest to its latest phases were to the winter sun and to the moon. This is corroborated, not only by Newham and North’s findings about orientations at the early phases of Stonehenge, but also by North’s observation that the Heel Stone-Grand Trilithon alignment "was set up with a double function, for observing two extremes, one of the sun and one of the moon".
Our contemporary desire to party at Stonehenge on summer solstice indicates the degree to which such moments in the seasonal year are still understood by us as times of real power. Perhaps what is needed then, as an answer to the original question this article posed, is for the Wiltshire Constabulary to give the go ahead for a second festival at Stonehenge, but this time on 21 December. We could then gather to watch the death of the sun through the ‘gateway’ of the Grand Trilithon and witness the rising of the moon and stars on the longest night of the year. This would undoubtedly represent a darker and more sombre ritual than the triumphant celebration of the rise of the sun at midsummer. But just as midsummer drumming is a good antidote to Land of Hope and Glory, a midwinter ritual at Stonehenge would not only fully connect us to those who built and used it, it may also give us a much needed ritual alternative at a time dominated by modern festive consumerist excess.
Second photo: Sunrise at Stonehenge, winter solstice 1985 (wikicommons)