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November 2005
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March 2007

Intellectual Property Rights: Do They Work for the Poor?

Phone july 11 123Global intellectual property regimes are a recent phenomenon. Conceived as part of a wider set of economic ‘neo liberal’ structural reforms, their intention is to bring all commercial development under the auspices of a single system governing the patenting of material and intellectual resources for exploitation.

Intellectual property rights (IPR) are granted on inventions, trademarks and industrial designs, while copyright is granted to literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs.

Patent regimes have been operative for several centuries in the developed West, and traditionally have remained national in origin and scope. What is unprecedented about the new generation of intellectual property regimes is the attempt to enforce them across the world, regardless of each individual country’s economic, research base or commercial capacity to manage or exploit them.

With systemic regimes of dispossession at the heart of Africa’s economic and governance problems, imposing an IPR regime on the resources people access fails to address the real issue. The real issue for most Africans is that they have very little property to protect, and they have grown used to living with the pervasive assumption that what little they may have can be taken from them at any time. Signing up rights over individual resources in terms of the TRIPS regime will do nothing to solve this problem, unless and until the wider questions of what property means to the poor, what property they have and are entitled to are addressed. If the IPR regimes that are to be imposed across the world are to be pro-poor, the first question they need to answer is: what of the poor’s property needs recognition and protection?

Read the whole article on Onislam (formerly Islam Online) 

Summer Solstice at Stonehenge

Where ancient and modern meet


The history of alternative gatherings at Stonehenge has long been culturally and politically fraught. Festivals began at summer solstice at the site over 25 years ago, but were suppressed at the notorious Battle of the Beanfield in 1985, after which, direct access to the stones was cut off at summer solstice and at all other times.

However, the desire for an annual gathering never disappeared, and during the late nineties, sustained negotiation between Druids, pagans, festivalgoers, English Heritage, and the National Trust facilitated a remarkable compromise. From 2000, the stones have become directly accessible again for anyone who wants to go on the night of the summer solstice.

One of the key aspects of Stonehenge is that astronomical alignments have been deliberately and accurately built into the design of the monument itself. One of these alignments is on the summer solstice sunrise. Watched from the center of the circle, the sun rises in the north east, just left of the Heel Stone (an important freestanding monolith on the edge of the monument). On a clear day, as the sun rises in the sky, it shines down the avenue leading into Stonehenge and casts a shadow of the Heel Stone into the centre of the monument before rising to reach its highest point in the sky by noon.

The summer solstice is not the only alignment at Stonehenge, and debate continues about the range, accuracy and importance of the extent of complex astronomical knowledge built into the monument. But whatever the finer technical points of these debates may be, the central fact is that the builders and users of Stonehenge were concerned, obsessed even, with astronomy and they knew the movements of the planets and heavens and their relationship with earth very well. Solstice2002-01b

In our post-industrial age, we believe all too often that we have gone beyond nature; we have mastered it for our own ends. We experience it only as a backdrop—convenient or otherwise—to our busy, machine-dependent lives. Yet, like our ancestors, in reality we, too, are born into it, dependent on it, and subject to its forces. By celebrating at Stonehenge we, too, momentarily can find the connection we have to nature, and to a realization of how much we are a part of it. In so doing, we reforge a connection with those human beings living all those years ago who left us such a remarkable testament to what they held dear, as well as with the awesome turning of the cycles of the world.

Winter solstice alignments at Stonehenge - read more.